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liquefaction process direct

10.6. Direct Liquefaction Processes netl.doe.gov

2021-7-6  Hybrid process approaches involving a combination of direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction (in which gasification is an intrinsic step) have been proposed and may be increasingly important in new research and development in coal/biomass to liquids process technology. Description Direct coal liquefaction involves contacting coal directly with a catalyst at elevated temperatures and

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Direct Liquefaction an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Also known as indirect liquefaction, this is a process whereby the coal is gasified and the gases converted, by catalytic reactions, to liquid hydrocarbon compounds. 3. Hydrogenation or

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Liquefaction Process an overview ScienceDirect

The liquefaction process (coal was the feedstock of choice for many decades in the twentieth century) is a process used to convert a solid fuel into a substitute for liquid fuels such as diesel and gasoline. Coal liquefaction has historically been used in countries without a secure supply of petroleum, such as Germany (during World War II) and South Africa (since the early 1970s).

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Direct Coal Liquefaction an overview ScienceDirect

Direct liquefaction was developed in the 1930s by Bergius and collaborators and involved reacting pulverized coal or coal/oil slurries with gaseous hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures. It was used extensively in Germany during World War II and in the former Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia for several years after the war.

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SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION

2019-2-27  Subsequent process research and development work overcame the major technical and economic obstacles to commercialization of the process. As a result, direct liquefaction products that meet or exceed crude oil qualities can be made for about $30/bbl. The technology was shown to be applicable to a wide range of coals in the United States.

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Direct Coal Liquefaction: Lessons Learned

2005-6-9  Direct Coal Liquefaction Processes: 1970 to 1995 Single-Stage Process: SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS Two-Stage Process: NTSL, ITSL, RITSL, DITSL, CTSL, CMSL ♦Many variations depending on Use of catalyst in the two stages (therm-cat, cat-cat) Distillation between stages Separation of solids between two stages or after second stage

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Direct liquefaction mining process Britannica

In coal utilization: Liquefaction reactions of coal can be done directly, either from gaseous hydrogen or by a liquid hydrogen-donor solvent, or it can be done indirectly, through an

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Direct liquefaction techniques on lignite coal: A review

2020-3-1  Interestingly, direct liquefaction is one of the important processes for obtaining valuable products from coal and low-ranking coals, such as lignite. The DCL process produces considerably high-variety and efficient products at low temperatures compared to the indirect coal liquefaction process.

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Direct coal liquefaction process Energy and

1992-2-27  Direct liquefaction is a process in which coal is converted to liquid products. This is accomplished by adding hydrogen to coal that has been slurried in a solvent, with the hydrogen addition taking place at elevated temperatures and pressures. The process was invented in 1913 and has remained relatively unchanged since its extensive use by

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Indirect Liquefaction an overview ScienceDirect

Generalized direct liquefaction process train (Probstein and Hicks, 2006). Some of the designs from the late 1970s through mid-1980s include solvent-refined coal (SRC) processes I and II, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) process and the H-Coal process ( Lumpkin, 1988 ; Song, 2005 ;

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Direct liquefaction mining process Britannica

process. In coal utilization: Liquefaction reactions. of coal can be done directly, either from gaseous hydrogen or by a liquid hydrogen-donor solvent, or it can be done indirectly, through an intermediate series of compounds. In direct liquefaction, the macromolecular structure of the coal is broken down in such a manner that the yield of

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Direct coal liquefaction process Energy and

1992-2-27  Direct liquefaction is a process in which coal is converted to liquid products. This is accomplished by adding hydrogen to coal that has been slurried in a solvent, with the hydrogen addition taking place at elevated temperatures and pressures. The process was invented in 1913 and has remained relatively unchanged since its extensive use by

get price

Direct Coal Liquefaction: Lessons Learned

2005-6-9  Direct Coal Liquefaction Processes: 1970 to 1995 Single-Stage Process: SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS Two-Stage Process: NTSL, ITSL, RITSL, DITSL, CTSL, CMSL ♦Many variations depending on Use of catalyst in the two stages (therm-cat, cat-cat) Distillation between stages Separation of solids between two stages or after second stage

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Direct liquefaction (DCL) processes and technology for

The use of high-carbon-based feeds to produce alternative fuels and value-added chemicals is discussed. Basic conversion chemistry, chemical structures of coal and lignin biomass are discussed, followed by process technologies for direct liquefaction, liquid quality, process control and modeling, advantages and limitations, and future trends.

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SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION

2019-2-27  Subsequent process research and development work overcame the major technical and economic obstacles to commercialization of the process. As a result, direct liquefaction products that meet or exceed crude oil qualities can be made for about $30/bbl. The technology was shown to be applicable to a wide range of coals in the United States.

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Hydrogenation of heavy liquids from a direct coal liquefaction

2011-1-3  Introduction Direct coal liquefaction (DCL) refers to hydrogenation of coal usually at 400–470 °C and an elevated H2 pressure. DCL residue (DCLR) usually accounts for 20–30 wt.% coal that fed to the liquefaction reactor, and contains 30–50 wt.% heavy liquids [1,2].

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Direct liquefaction and process technology,

1994-3-1  Direct liquefaction and process technology Direct liquefaction and process technology Romey, I. 1994-03-01 00:00:00 The session covers a wide range of process technologies in direct coal liquefaction. Eleven projects have been contracted by the Commission, dealing with new approaches in single-stage or two-stage liquefaction of lignites and macerals, liquefaction under low-severity

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Direct liquefaction of lignocellulose: exploration,

The direct liquefaction process are found to be realized to produce the bio-crude at a crude oil equivalent price of \$60/bbl, which is competitive with current crude oil price also at \$60/bbl (2nd quarter of 2015). The calculated price of the bio-cruse obtained through the liquefaction processes is competitive if not better than other

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10.5. Indirect Liquefaction Processes netl.doe.gov

2021-7-4  Indirect coal liquefaction requires first gasifying the coal into a syngas. Therefore, while direct coal liquefaction (DCL) takes coal directly into a liquid phase, indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) consists of two major steps: (a) gasification to produce a synthesis gas (syngas); and (b) conversion of the carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H 2) in the syngas to a range of hydrocarbon fuels

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Direct Liquefaction SpringerLink

Direct liquefaction refers to several processes which rely on thermal energy, hydrogen, and solvent to produce high yields of liquid products from coal. The focus of research in this type of coal conversion has therefore been directly stimulated by process improvements related to one or more aspects of these processes—or the generic form of

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Direct Liquefaction SpringerLink

Direct liquefaction refers to several processes which rely on thermal energy, hydrogen, and solvent to produce high yields of liquid products from coal. The focus of research in this type of coal conversion has therefore been directly stimulated by process improvements related to one or more aspects of these processes—or the generic form of

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SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION

2019-2-27  Subsequent process research and development work overcame the major technical and economic obstacles to commercialization of the process. As a result, direct liquefaction products that meet or exceed crude oil qualities can be made for about $30/bbl. The technology was shown to be applicable to a wide range of coals in the United States.

get price

Direct liquefaction mining process Britannica

process. In coal utilization: Liquefaction reactions. of coal can be done directly, either from gaseous hydrogen or by a liquid hydrogen-donor solvent, or it can be done indirectly, through an intermediate series of compounds. In direct liquefaction, the macromolecular structure of the coal is broken down in such a manner that the yield of

get price

Direct liquefaction (DCL) processes and technology for

The use of high-carbon-based feeds to produce alternative fuels and value-added chemicals is discussed. Basic conversion chemistry, chemical structures of coal and lignin biomass are discussed, followed by process technologies for direct liquefaction, liquid quality, process control and modeling, advantages and limitations, and future trends.

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An Economical Process for Direct Liquefaction of

2011-10-4  OSTI.GOV Technical Report: An Economical Process for Direct Liquefaction of Biomass and Coal to Liquid Fuels

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DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS ACCELERGY

DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS . United States Patent Application 20150191657 . Kind Code: A1 . Abstract: A direct coal liquefaction method and apparatus in which the feed coal is mixed with a recycled 600° F.+ non-donor stream in which the ratio of coal to said stream is at least 1.5:1 on a moisture free basis to form an input slurry to a

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10.5. Indirect Liquefaction Processes netl.doe.gov

2021-7-4  Indirect coal liquefaction requires first gasifying the coal into a syngas. Therefore, while direct coal liquefaction (DCL) takes coal directly into a liquid phase, indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) consists of two major steps: (a) gasification to produce a synthesis gas (syngas); and (b) conversion of the carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H 2) in the syngas to a range of hydrocarbon fuels

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(PDF) Direct Liquefaction of Biomass Michael

At temperatures of 300 to 350°C, pressures between 120 and 180 6.2.3 Direct Catalytic High-Pressure Liquefaction BFH bar and a residence time of 5 to 20 min. a biocrude is pro- Process duced. The oxygen in the biomass is removed by water and CO2.

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Advanced progress concepts for direct coal

1995-9-1  The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information

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Direct liquefaction Proof-of-Concept facility. Final

1995-8-1  The Coal Liquefaction Proof-of-Concept Facility is nearing start-up. The $18.6 million, 3-year, cost-shared contract was awarded on September 30, 1992, and work began immediately to modify the existing 3-tons-per-day process development unit.

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